"Sonrai Causatives and Passives: Transformational versus Lexical Derivations for Propositional Heads", The Songhay or Songhai languages (or ) are a group of closely related languages/dialects centred on the middle stretches of the Niger River in the West African countries of Mali, Niger, Benin, Burkina Faso and Nigeria.In particular, they are spoken in the cities of Timbuktu and Gao.They have been widely used as a lingua franca in that region ever since the era of the Songhai Empire.
However, about 60% of the people use other languages well. Of the many languages spoken, English is the official language of Malawi while Chichewa is the national language.
Linguists divide the African languages spoken there into two families: Atlantic and Mande. Another major group of languages spoken on the African continent is the Nilo-Saharan group. It is used by the administration and understood by about 15–20% of all males and about 1–2% of all women.

Mali’s population is increasing at a rate of 3.02%, which has been about the average since 2000. Other people can read and write in Arabic, after going to an Islamic school. While the official language of Mali is French, 80% of people speak Bambara and there are at least 40 African languages in use. Many people can read and write in (the most popular spoken language). This added about 593,000 people to the population from 2019 to 2020.

Most Muslim people in Mali are Sunni, but there are also Ahmadiyya and Shia communities present. See the list of External Links.Shopen, T. & Konaré, M. 1970. The Mande language of Dyula is spoken in countries such as Burkina Faso, Mali, and the Ivory Coast. While the official language of Mali is French, 80% of people speak Bambara and there are at least 40 African languages in use. First language speakers of Fulfulde reside primarily in the east and north of Burkina Faso. Speakers of Nilo-Saharan languages live in 17 countries with some in the north of the continent such as Algeria and Libya, and others in the east such as Tanzania and Kenya. The largest is the Bambara, accounting for 37% of the population.

The languages of Africa are divided into several major language families: . Greenberg's argument was subjected to serious criticism by Lacroix, who deemed only about 30 of Greenberg's claimed cognates acceptable, and moreover argued that these held mainly between Greenberg's morphological similarities with Nilo-Saharan include the personal pronouns The most striking of the Mande similarities listed by Creissels are the third person pronouns The Songhay languages are considered to be an independent family by Dimmendaal (2011), although he classifies This map is based on classification from Glottolog and data from Ethnologue.A map of the varieties is provided by Ethnologue at its Web site. This language has its own alphabet, called . The west African country of Mali covers 478,800 square miles (1,240,000 square kilometers) of area, almost all of which is land. ; Afroasiatic languages are spread throughout Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and parts of the Sahel. This fertility rate keeps the population very young, with a median age of 16.3 years, and is the main cause of the rapid population increase. One of the significant tongues in this category is the Luo which is spoken by a segment of the Kenyan and Tanzanian … A few precolonial poems and letters composed in Songhay and written in the Researchers classify the Songhay languages into two main branches; Southern and Northern.However, a Nilo-Saharan classification is controversial. The Atlantic family, generally found in the western half of the country, contains the languages most widely spoken in Senegal—Wolof, Serer, Fula, and Diola.

Senegal is a multilingual country: Ethnologue lists 36 languages, Wolof being the most widely spoken language.. French, which was inherited from the colonial era, is the official language of Senegal. The city is located in a more fertile part of the country along the The people of Mali are comprised of several sub-Saharan ethnic groups. Niger–Congo or perhaps Atlantic–Congo languages (Bantu and non-Bantu, the inclusion of Mande and a few other groups is disputed) are spoken in West, Central, Southeast and Southern Africa. The Bambara, Sonike, Khassonke and Malinke are part of the larger Mande group, which accounts for half of the country's population. The language is spoken by about 8.36% of the country's population. There are other numerous languages also spoken in the country. Senegal - Senegal - Languages: Some 39 languages are spoken in Senegal, including French (the official language) and Arabic.

However, English which is more often a second language and remains an important language in the country due to the country's history as a British colony. Mali’s high fertility rate of 5.92 births per woman is one of the highest in the world. The language of Mali under French rule was French, but now not many people outside towns can read or write this language. The small non-muslim population is split pretty evenly between Christians, and those practicing indigenous beliefs.The economy in Mali is largely based in rural agriculture, which occupies 70% of their workforce, and their economy is doing very poorly. Other large ethnic groups include the Fula (17%), Voltaic (12%), Songhai (6%) and the Tuareg and Moor (10%). The capital city of Bamako is by far the largest with a population of just over 2 million. Mali completely landlocked and is bordered by Roughly a third of the population in Mali live in urban areas, and there are a few sizable cities that house these citizens. On the other hand, Chichewa is a native language almost spoken … Millions of people speak this language, which is an important trade language and is mutually intelligible with Bambara. Mali is both one of the 10 poorest countries in the world, as well as on a list of 37 very poor, and also very indebted countries, and they rely heavily on foreign aid. Senegal is a member State of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Other large ethnic groups include the Fula (17%), Voltaic (12%), Songhai (6%) and the Tuareg and Moor (10%).Mali is considered an Islamic society, with over 90% of the population practicing Islam. The Bambara, Sonike, Khassonke and Malinke are part of the larger Mande group, which accounts for half of the country's population. Dyula.

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